Author: Kubik, Bill
Description: Saving energy and reducing a plant's carbon footprint is vitally important in today's world. One of a plant's greatest energy users can be its steam-driven turbines. Steam turbines have excellent reliability and durability and are used to drive pumps, compressors, generators, and other rotating mechanical equipment throughout the refining, chemical, and petrochemical industries for processes that produce petroleum products, chemicals, fertilizers, electric power, and other products that are used every day by people around the world.
Author: Kubik, Bill
Description: Fertilizer plants commonly use steam turbines to drive process air compressors, synthesis gas compressors, refrigerant compressors, electric generators and other mechanical devices. The cost of producing steam to operate the plant's turbines is significant. Any adjustments in operation that can improve turbine performance will lead to reduced energy consumption and cost. Unfortunately, the equipment that is used to support the turbine is often overlooked. This article will explore the important relationship between operation of the steam surface condenser and its venting ejectors, and how their performance directly affects the fuel costs associated with operating a steam turbine.
Author: Johnson, Eric & Alicia
Description: Set refinery profitability goals
Author: Johnson, Eric
Description: Steam ejector vacuum systems are reliable and require little maintenance. However, when preventive or corrective maintenance is required, ensuring it is done correctly is imperative.
Author: Lines, Jim
Description: Ejector systems are critical to the final concentration of a urea solution.
Author: Lines, Jim
Description: For decades there has been a marked uncertainty regarding the operation of steam jet ejectors in downstream facilities. This article reviews the functionality, performance and considerations of this important technology.
Author: Lines, Jim
Description: Crude oil refining and petrochemical industries make extensive use of condensers that operate under vacuum. Distillation is the most common process using these condensers, either as a process precondenser ahead of an ejector system, or as an intercondenser within an ejector system...
Description: Best practices and opportunities to deliver reliable ejector systems performance and reduce performance risk.
Description: Essential processes in the production of natural fats and oils and derivative oleochemicals are performed under vacuum, i.e., at a pressure below atmospheric. Such processes, including solvent extraction, degumming, bleaching, interesterification, fractionation, winterization and deodorization, are supported by ejector systems
Description: Real world ejector system performance limitations uncovered during routine performance surveys. Corrective action undertaken to improve performance is documented and discussed in detail. Principles from the initial article are used as the tools to define the cause of a particular limitation and the eventual solution.
Description: A complete understanding of ejector system performance characteristics can reduce the time and expense associated with troubleshooting poor crude vacuum distillation unit (CVDU) performance. Variables that may negatively impact the ejector-system performance of vacuum-crude distillation units include utilities supply, corrosion and erosion, fouling, and process conditions.
Description: How ejectors work and the advantages of using pressurized air motive to operate an ejector instead of pressurized motive steam
Description: How to properly design steam ejector and process condenser systems as commercially available software does not accurately model system design performance
Description: How steam ejectors work and an analysis of ejector systems and troubleshooting tips with reference to case studies.
Description: This paper attempts to show the effects on an ejector system when various operating parameters are modified in order to improve vacuum column cut point. Ejector system design is directly impacted by cut point set for the atmospheric column that precedes a vacuum column. It is noted that increasing cut point for the atmospheric column results in added stripping steam to the vacuum column, consequently, a larger ejector system is required.
Description: How to determine pressure drop, condensate leg height and other piping considerations for proper vacuum system design and operation
Description: How steam ejector systems work and troubleshooting tips for crude vacuum tower systems to keep them running with minimal down time.
Description: How ejectors work and properly operating ejectors and condensers is important in maximizing vacuum tower gas-oil yield
Description: How steam jet ejectors work and the differences in selecting a pilot plant unit and a full scale production unit
Description: How to optimize and select the most economical steam ejector, process condenser, liquid ring pump system for capital cost and utility cost.
Description: How steam vacuum refrigeration works and the advantages to consider over the use of a mechanical chiller system
Description: How ejectors work, where they are used, why they are the most economical vacuum equipment selection
Description: Selecting and optimizing steam jet ejectors and condensers for any vacuum level required for the process industries
Description: Steam-jet vacuum systems combine ejectors, condensers and interconnecting piping to provide relatively low-cost and low-maintenance vacuum pumping. These systems operate on the ejector-venturi principle, which relies on the momentum of a high-velocity jet of steam to move air and other gases from a connecting pipe or vessel.
Description: Detail design considerations involved in selecting steam ejector/liquid ring pump vacuum system for crude tower service. Materials of construction, energy utilization, packaging, system performance and flexibility will be addressed
Description: The history of Graham Corporation, how it started and perfected heat transfer and vacuum products and invention of the Heliflow Heat Exchanger.
Description: Steam jet ejector and liquid ring vacuum pump hybrid gas removal system for steam turbine generator and surface condenser venting of non-condensable gases in a Geothermal power plant system.
Description: Pressurized air operated ejectors in applications to replace other types of vacuum equipment.