Technical Documents Library

The Graham Technical Library contains articles developed by Graham Corporation for publication in various magazines and technical seminar presentations. The articles are organized in three categories; heat transfer, vacuum equipment, and steam surface condensers.

Author: Lines, Jim
Description: A decades-old, yet less well-known type of heat exchanger offers advantages for new and emerging applications.
Author: Lines, Jim
Description: Environmental stewardship is becoming a priority for chemical plants as investors, corporate boards, government agencies and the public are demanding more accountability. For chemical processing plants, the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from storage tanks is an area that often gets overlooked but is equally important to other sustainability targets, such as production processes, when it comes to meeting environmental, social and governance goals.
Author: Lines, Jim
Description: Ejector system fouling can cost refiners millions of dollars annually. It leads to lost yield or lower throughput, either of which affects a refiner's bottom line.
Author: Johnson, Alicia
Description: Alicia Johnson, Graham Corporation, highlights the strengths and weaknesses of traditional straight tube designs vs coiled tube designs in both condensers and heat exchangers.
Author: Lines, James
Description: Working with supercritical fluids poses challenges when designing heat exchangers. Some practical tips and precautions are presented in this article.
Description: High pressure applications are when the operating/design pressures exceed 1,000 psig. The Heliflow Heat Exchanger becomes an attractive alternative to the traditional shell & tube type as the pressures exceed this threshold.
Description: Mechanical seals installed on pumps handling medium and high temperature fluids require cooling of the seal fluid to ensure proper seal operation. Heliflow Heat Exchangers are proven, efficient, and cost-effective seal coolers.
Description: Supercritical fluids exist when any substance is at a temperature and pressure above its critical point. Heliflow Heat Exchangers are an ideal option for handling these extreme conditions.
Description: Cooler steam can reap hot benefits. Weigh all the options so you don't get burned.
Description: Ultra low, cryogenic, temperature applications for heat exchanger design for use in pharmaceutical and specialty chemical applications.
Description: Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which state acceptable rates for VOC emissions. Condensation technology allows reclamation of VOCs, providing an economic incentive when costly product is reclaimed as a condensate.
Description: The history of Graham Corporation, how it started and perfected heat transfer and vacuum products and invention of the Heliflow Heat Exchanger.
Description: A seal cooler directly affects performance of a mechanical seal and extends its mean time between failures (MTBF). The heat removal and thermosiphoning capabilities of the cooler, its hydraulic characteristicstics, as well as its ability to remove trapped air (ventability) influence mechanical seal performance. API Standard 682, Shaft Sealing Systems for Centrifugal and Rotary Pumps
Description: The equations allow quick determination of a heat exchanger’s achievable performance when certain data are known. Knowing an exchanger’s configuration — co-current or counter-current, inlet conditions for both hot and cold sides, effective surface area and transfer rate — achievable outlet temperatures are easily approximated.
Description: Evaporative coolers in many applications give greater heat transfer than air coolers. Perhaps the greatest advantage the evaporative cooler can offer over dry air cooling is a lower temperature heat sink.
Description: Asymmetric plate heat exchangers allow independent optimization of both fluids for maximum thermal efficiency and economy.  Differentiating a heat transfer plate from a channel is extremely important and fundamental to the analysis of PHEs.
Description: Helically coiled exchangers offer certain advantages. Compact size provides a distinct benefit. Higher film coefficients and more effective use of available pressure drop result in efficient and less-expensive designs. True counter-current flow design.
Description: Plate heat exchangers may be selected for their high thermal efficiency and minimum capital investment. Spiral heat exchangers, on the other hand, are turned to for their ability to effectively handle fluids containing solids and fibers, similar to those encountered in wastewater treatment plants.
Description: Graham Manufacturing makes coiled-tube heat transfer equipment (Heliflow heat exchangers) which is frequently utilized as cryogenic vaporizers, with 80% of this service dedicated to liquid nitrogen. As a result of this testing, an analytical formulation for predicting boiling heat transfer rates in coiled-tube heat exchangers has been developed.