Technical Documents Library

The Graham Technical Library contains articles developed by Graham Corporation for publication in various magazines and technical seminar presentations. The articles are organized in three categories; heat transfer, vacuum equipment, and steam surface condensers.

Author: Lines, Jim
Description: If not designed and operated correctly, vacuum systems can be prone to fouling, ice formation, and other issues that can affect product quality.
Author: Lines, Jim
Description: Jim Lines, Graham Corp., USA, lists the VDU ejector system field lessons learned by a performance improvement engineer, through the lens of four specific case studies.
Author: Lines, Jim
Description: Refiners can benefit from improved yield and lower vacuum residuum, thus improving refinery economics with minor modifications to the ejector system. Refiners continually optimise their crude slate, push the vacuum column for greater throughput and, for a variety of other reasons, operate the vacuum distillation unit under conditions different from the design basis. This can lead to dramatic increases in vacuum column pressure, especially during summer months when cooling water is warmest.
Author: Johnson, Eric & Alicia
Description: Set refinery profitability goals
Author: Johnson, Eric
Description: Steam ejector vacuum systems are reliable and require little maintenance. However, when preventive or corrective maintenance is required, ensuring it is done correctly is imperative.
Author: Johnson, Eric
Description: A system of compressors powered by surface condensing steam turbines is inherent in the operation of a typical ethane cracker unit. These turbines run by extracting work from high-pressure steam, while a surface condenser condenses the turbine's exhaust to both maximize compressor horsepower and recover valuable condensate.
Author: Lines, Jim
Description: Ejector systems are critical to the final concentration of a urea solution.
Author: Lines, Jim
Description: For decades there has been a marked uncertainty regarding the operation of steam jet ejectors in downstream facilities. This article reviews the functionality, performance and considerations of this important technology.
Author: Lines, Jim
Description: Crude oil refining and petrochemical industries make extensive use of condensers that operate under vacuum. Distillation is the most common process using these condensers, either as a process precondenser ahead of an ejector system, or as an intercondenser within an ejector system...
Description: Essential processes in the production of natural fats and oils and derivative oleochemicals are performed under vacuum, i.e., at a pressure below atmospheric. Such processes, including solvent extraction, degumming, bleaching, interesterification, fractionation, winterization and deodorization, are supported by ejector systems
Description: Different types of vacuum pumps, piston, vane, dry, lobe, liquid ring, ejector, condenser, are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of each type is provided
Description: Real world ejector system performance limitations uncovered during routine performance surveys. Corrective action undertaken to improve performance is documented and discussed in detail. Principles from the initial article are used as the tools to define the cause of a particular limitation and the eventual solution.
Description: A complete understanding of ejector system performance characteristics can reduce the time and expense associated with troubleshooting poor crude vacuum distillation unit (CVDU) performance.  Variables that may negatively impact the ejector-system performance of vacuum-crude distillation units include utilities supply, corrosion and erosion, fouling, and process conditions.
Description: Cost savings by considering the use of a variable frequency drive for a liquid ring pump system.
Description: How ejectors work and the advantages of using pressurized air motive to operate an ejector instead of pressurized motive steam
Description: How to properly design steam ejector and process condenser systems as commercially available software does not accurately model system design performance
Description: How steam ejectors work and an analysis of ejector systems and troubleshooting tips with reference to case studies.
Description: How to properly install a liquid ring vacuum pump, determine what accessories and controls are necessary and troubleshooting tips.
Description: This paper attempts to show the effects on an ejector system when various operating parameters are modified in order to improve vacuum column cut point. Ejector system design is directly impacted by cut point set for the atmospheric column that precedes a vacuum column. It is noted that increasing cut point for the atmospheric column results in added stripping steam to the vacuum column, consequently, a larger ejector system is required.
Description: How to determine pressure drop, condensate leg height and other piping considerations for proper vacuum system design and operation
Description: How liquid ring vacuum pumps work and the factors to consider when sizing a liquid ring vacuum pump for the application.
Description: How steam ejector systems work and troubleshooting tips for crude vacuum tower systems to keep them running with minimal down time.
Description: How ejectors work and properly operating ejectors and condensers is important in maximizing vacuum tower gas-oil yield
Description: How steam jet ejectors work and the differences in selecting a pilot plant unit and a full scale production unit
Description: How to optimize and select the most economical steam ejector, process condenser, liquid ring pump system for capital cost and utility cost.
Description: How liquid ring pumps work and what devices are used to control the operation of a liquid ring pump system for proper operation
Description: How steam vacuum refrigeration works and the advantages to consider over the use of a mechanical chiller system
Description: How ejectors work, where they are used, why they are the most economical vacuum equipment selection
Description: Selecting and optimizing steam jet ejectors and condensers for any vacuum level required for the process industries
Description: Steam-jet vacuum systems combine ejectors, condensers and interconnecting piping to provide relatively low-cost and low-maintenance vacuum pumping. These systems operate on the ejector-venturi principle, which relies on the momentum of a high-velocity jet of steam to move air and other gases from a connecting pipe or vessel.
Description: Detail design considerations involved in selecting steam ejector/liquid ring pump vacuum system for crude tower service. Materials of construction, energy utilization, packaging, system performance and flexibility will be addressed
Description: The history of Graham Corporation, how it started and perfected heat transfer and vacuum products and invention of the Heliflow Heat Exchanger.
Description: Steam jet ejector and liquid ring vacuum pump hybrid gas removal system for steam turbine generator and surface condenser venting of non-condensable gases in a Geothermal power plant system.
Description: Pressurized air operated ejectors in applications to replace other types of vacuum equipment.